Simplified preregistration and registration formalities (publication, notarization, and other requirements)
Bahamas, The; Bangladesh; Brazil; Chile; Congo Dem. Rep.; Croatia; Cyprus; Equatorial Guinea; Eswatini; Greece; Grenada; Guinea; Honduras; India; Lao PDR; Nigeria; Pakistan; Slovak Republic; Togo; United Arab Emirates; Zimbabwe
The Lao People’s Democratic Republic made starting a business easier by eliminating the requirement to obtain proof of business location from the Village Chief Authority for business registration. Togo made starting a business easier by abolishing the requirement to notarize company documents and reducing the time to register a company.
Abolished or reduced minimum capital requirement
Belgium; Croatia; Dominican Republic; Philippines; San Marino
Belgium eliminated the paid-in minimum capital requirement with the introduction of the new companies and associations code.
Cut or simplified postregistration procedures (tax registration, social security registration, licensing)
Cabo Verde; Colombia; Gambia, The; Indonesia (Jakarta); Israel; Lesotho; Malta; Romania; Rwanda
Rwanda made starting a business easier by exempting newly-formed small and medium enterprises from paying the trading license tax for their first two years of operation.
Introduced or improved online procedures
Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas, The; Brazil; Eswatini; Finland; Indonesia (Jakarta); Kuwait; Malta; Myanmar; Nigeria; Pakistan; United States (Los Angeles); Zimbabwe
Antigua and Barbuda made starting a business faster by improving exchange of information between public entities involved in company incorporation. Myanmar made starting a business easier by introducing an online platform for company registration and reducing incorporation fees.
Created or improved one-stop shop
China (Beijing); Egypt, Arab Rep.; Gabon; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Malta; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Tajikistan; Tunisia
Malta made starting a business easier by implementing a one-stop-shop for registration of employer, employees and value added tax. Tunisia made starting a business easier by merging more services into the one-stop shop and by reducing fees.
Reduced time for processing permit applications
Argentina; Bahrain; Cabo Verde; China; India; Kuwait; Mauritius; Myanmar; Pakistan; Rwanda; Togo; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates
Rwanda made dealing with construction permits faster by reducing the time to obtain the water and sewerage connection.
Argentina; Bahrain; China; Gabon; Hong Kong SAR, China; India; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Malaysia; Mauritius; Moldova; Morocco; Pakistan; Philippines; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Thailand; Ukraine; Zimbabwe
Malaysia streamlined the process of dealing with construction permits by eliminating the road and drainage inspection performed by Kuala Lumpur City Hall.
Adopted new building regulations
Armenia; China; Congo, Dem. Rep.; Ethiopia; Gabon; Georgia; Hong Kong SAR, China; India (Delhi); Kenya; Moldova; Myanmar; Rwanda; Singapore; Thailand
Armenia and Myanmar strengthened construction quality control by imposing stricter qualification requirements for architects and engineers.
Eswatini; Georgia; Kenya; Myanmar; Togo; Zimbabwe
Eswatini, Georgia and Kenya improved their building quality control by increasing public access to information.
Bahrain; Croatia; Denmark; India; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Morocco; Nepal; Nigeria (Lagos); Serbia; Singapore; Togo; Ukraine
Nepal made dealing with construction permits easier and less costly by reducing the fees to obtain a building permit.
Introduced or improved one-stop shop
Pakistan made obtaining a construction permit easier and faster by streamlining the approval process and by improving the operational efficiency of its one-stop shop for construction permitting.
Improved or introduced electronic platforms or online services
Argentina; Bahrain; Cabo Verde; China; India; Kuwait; Morocco; Nepal; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Singapore; Togo; Ukraine
Argentina made dealing with construction permits easier by implementing an electronic platform for building permit applications and streamlining procedures.
Improved reliability of supply
Albania; Costa Rica; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Indonesia (Surabaya); Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao PDR; Malta; Rwanda; Serbia; Uganda; Ukraine
The Arab Republic of Egypt implemented automated systems to monitor power outages and restore service. Kenya improved the reliability of power supply by modernizing its infrastructure and by inaugurating a new substation in Nairobi. Ukraine introduced compensation to customers for power outages.
Improved transparency of tariffs
Bahamas, The; China; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Pakistan
The Bahamas started publishing electricity tariffs online.
Reduced time to obtain a new connection
Bahrain; Bangladesh (Dhaka); Barbados; Belize; Costa Rica; Eswatini; Ghana; Indonesia (Surabaya); Kuwait; Lao PDR; Morocco; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Qatar; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Ukraine
Barbados made getting electricity faster by deploying new software to process applications for a connection, by increasing the stock of material for connection works and by offering training programs to utility staff. Lao PDR reduced the time for a new connection by allocating more staff to process connection requests. Pakistan launched online portals for applications for a new connection and enforced service delivery time frames.
Streamlined approval process
Cabo Verde; China; El Salvador; Kuwait; Lithuania; Morocco; Nigeria; Saudi Arabia
Kuwait digitized the application process, combined connection works and meter installations and launched a geographic information system to streamline the review of connection requests.
Reduced connection costs
Bangladesh (Dhaka); Cabo Verde; Lithuania; Togo
Lithuania reduced the cost of new connections. Togo reduced the cost of connection works and the security deposit charged for new connections.
Increased reliability of infrastructure
Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Benin; Brazil; Cabo Verde; Nigeria (Lagos)
Bahrain introduced a new internal network for property registration, the electronic Registration Workflow System (eRWS). Azerbaijan formally mapped and completed registration of every privately-held land plot in Baku.
Increased transparency of information
Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Benin; Brazil; Cabo Verde; Ecuador; Eswatini; Ethiopia; Kuwait; Mauritius; Myanmar; Pakistan; Qatar; Togo; Tunisia; Ukraine; Zimbabwe
Kuwait published official service standards on property transfers. Ethiopia made the list of documents required for completing property registration, official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency and service standards publicly available online.
Reduced taxes or fees
Croatia; Guinea; Jamaica; Togo; Turkey
Croatia reduced the real estate tax from 4% to 3%. Togo lowered notary and registration fees. Guinea reduced the fees to register the sale contract with the National Tax Authorities from 5% to 2% of the property value.
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro); Cabo Verde; Chad; Croatia; Ecuador; Kuwait; Mauritius; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Tunisia; Turkey; Zimbabwe
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) introduced an online site to request the 20-year certificate (certidão de matrícula). Mauritius provided notaries with online access to its database to conduct title searches and check for encumbrances.
Increased administrative efficiency
Bahrain; Brazil; Kuwait; Qatar; Togo
Qatar streamlined the property registration process into one procedure by creating a one-stop shop, thereby eliminating interactions between applicants and Ministry employees. In Togo, submission of the transfer documents and payment of the registration fee are now completed in one step at the same office.
Strengthening legal rights of borrowers and lenders
Created a unified and/or modern collateral registry for movable property
Djibouti; Jordan; Kenya; Tajikistan
Kenya established a modern collateral registry.
Introduced a functional and
secured transactions system
Djibouti; Jordan; Tajikistan
Jordan strengthened access to credit by implementing a functional secured transactions system. The new law regulates functional equivalents to loans secured with movable property, such as financial leases and fiduciary transfer of title.
Allowed for general description of assets that can be used as collateral
Tajikistan allowed the general description of current and future assets that can be used as collateral.
Expanded range of movable assets that can be used as collateral
Azerbaijan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Saudi Arabia; Tajikistan
Kazakhstan broadened the scope of assets which can be used as collateral to secure a loan.
Granted absolute priority to secured creditors or allowed out-of-court enforcement
Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Saudi Arabia; Tajikistan; Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe introduced a new law that grants secured creditors absolute priority over other claims within insolvency proceedings.
Granted exemptions to secured creditors from automatic stay in insolvency proceedings
Bahrain; Jordan; Tajikistan
Bahrain adopted a new law on insolvency that contemplates protections for secured creditors during an automatic stay in reorganization proceedings.
Established a new credit bureau or registry
Ukraine improved access to credit information by launching a new credit registry.
Improved regulatory framework for credit reporting
Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, Rep.; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Kitts and Nevis improved access to credit information through the introduction of regulation that governs the licensing and functioning of credit bureaus in the member states of the East Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU).
Expanded scope of information collected and reported by credit bureau or registry
Australia; Israel; Kazakhstan; Niger; Qatar; Togo; Vietnam
In Vietnam, one retailer began submitting positive and negative information on consumer accounts to the credit bureau.
Introduced bureau or registry credit scores as a value-added service
Jordan; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Mauritania
In Jordan, the credit bureau began offering credit scores to banks and other financial institutions to better inform their lending decisions.
Guaranteed by law borrowers’ right to inspect data
Kuwait adopted a law guaranteeing borrowers’ right to inspect their own data.
Expanded borrower coverage by credit bureau or registry
Bangladesh; Haiti; Nepal; Niger; Senegal; Togo
Haiti expanded the number of borrowers listed by its credit registry with information on their borrowing history from the past five years to more than 5% of the adult population.
Expanded shareholders’ role in company management
Armenia; Bahamas, The; Bahrain; China; Djibouti; Egypt, Arab. Rep.; Greece; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Lithuania; Morocco; Myanmar; Oman; Russian Federation; Serbia; Spain; Uzbekistan; Zambia
In Kenya, shareholders now have the final say on the election and dismissal of the external auditor. Oman promulgated a new Commercial Companies Law enabling shareholders to decide on major transactions.
Increased disclosure requirements for related-party transactions
Armenia; Bahamas, The; Greece; Kosovo; Myanmar
Philippines; Serbia; Ukraine
In Greece, an amendment to the legal framework applicable to joint-stock companies requires board members to fully disclose the nature and extent of their conflicts of interest, and an independent auditor must review the terms of proposed transactions with interested parties.
Increased director liability
Azerbaijan; China; Myanmar; Philippines; United Arab Emirates
The Philippines Securities and Exchange Commission can now disqualify directors from serving in the management of any company for one year if a court finds that they took advantage of a conflict of interest.
Enhanced access to information in shareholder actions
Kosovo; Saudi Arabia
Kosovo adopted a new Law on Business Organizations that gives shareholders broader access to company documents before filing a lawsuit.
Making it easier to pay taxes
Introduced or enhanced electronic systems
Bahamas, The; Bahrain; China; Côte d'Ivoire; Cyprus; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Hungary; Indonesia; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Korea, Rep.; Kyrgyz Republic; Pakistan; Russian Federation; Senegal; Vietnam
Indonesia introduced an online system for filing and paying payroll taxes and value added tax. Online filing of payroll taxes is mandatory for companies with more than 20 employees. Online value added tax filing is mandatory for companies with more than 20 value added tax transactions in one month.
Reduced profit tax rate, allowed for more tax-deductible expenses and made changes to tax depreciation rules
Belgium; China; Congo, Dem. Rep.; Gambia, The; Israel; Morocco; Pakistan; St. Vincent and the Grenadines; United States
The United States decreased the corporate income tax rate from 34% to 21% in 2018. Morocco replaced the 30% flat corporate income tax rate with a progressive tax scale as of January 1, 2018.
Reduced labor taxes and mandatory contributions, or taxes other than profit and labor
Belgium; Gambia, The; Hungary; Moldova; Romania
Hungary reduced the social tax rate paid by the employer from 22% to 19.5% as of January 1, 2018.
Merged or eliminated taxes
Kyrgyz Republic; Papua New Guinea; Romania; Senegal; Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan merged the infrastructure tax with the corporate income tax in 2018. Papua New Guinea abolished the Training Levy as of January 1, 2018.
Improved VAT refund process
Armenia; Côte d'Ivoire; Papua New Guinea; Russian Federation; Serbia; Turkey
Armenia amended its value added tax law to allow cash refunds for all cases as of 2018. Value added tax cash refunds are no longer restricted to international traders. Côte d'Ivoire introduced an electronic case management system for processing value added tax cash refunds.
Improved tax audit processes and correction of corporate income tax processes
Hungary; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia
Tunisia put in place an automatic risk-based system for selecting companies for direct tax audits.
Introduced or improved electronic submission and processing of documents for exports
Argentina; Armenia; Barbados; Colombia; India; Indonesia; Kuwait; Morocco; Nigeria; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates introduced electronic certificates of origin. Argentina streamlined import licensing. Papua New Guinea reduced export and import documentary compliance time by implementing an automated customs data management system.
Introduced or improved electronic submission and processing of documents for imports
Argentina; China; India; Kuwait; Morocco; Nigeria; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Uruguay; Uzbekistan
India enhanced electronic submission of documents by integrating several government agencies into the online system e-Sanchit. Sierra Leone upgraded its customs electronic data interchange system to ASYCUDA (Automated System for Customs Data) World.
Strengthened border infrastructure for exports
Bahrain; China; India; Morocco; Nepal; Oman; Saudi Arabia
Bahrain deployed new scanners at King Fahd Causeway and established differentiated lanes for border crossing. Nepal opened an Integrated Check Post in Birgunj, a joint customs and border checkpoint between Nepal and India.
Strengthened border infrastructure for imports
Barbados; China; India; Morocco; Nepal; Oman; Saudi Arabia
India and Saudi Arabia made importing easier by upgrading port infrastructure. Morocco introduced e-payments for port fees through the Tanger Med Information System.
Enhanced customs administration and inspections for exports and imports
Barbados; Belize; China; India; Israel; Kuwait; Nepal; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan
China introduced advanced import declarations. Oman and Uzbekistan introduced risk management systems. Pakistan enhanced the integration of various agencies in the Web-Based One Customs (WEBOC) electronic system as well as the coordination of joint physical inspections at the port.
Introduced significant changes to the applicable civil procedure or enforcement rules
Bahrain; China; Costa Rica; Mauritania; Moldova; Nepal; Nigeria; North Macedonia
Costa Rica and Nigeria issued new civil procedure rules to introduce a pre-trial conference as part of the case management techniques used in court. Mauritania and Moldova adopted laws that set a simplified procedure to resolve small claims. North Macedonia reduced the enforcement fees.
Expanded court automation by introducing electronic payment, electronic service of process or automatic assignment of cases to judges
Argentina; Bahrain; Germany; Morocco; United States (Los Angeles)
Argentina and the United States (Los Angeles) implemented a platform to pay fees electronically. Morocco introduced random and automated assignment of cases to judges throughout the courts. Bahrain and Germany implemented electronic service of process.
Introduced or expanded the electronic case management system
Brunei Darussalam; China (Shanghai); Côte d’Ivoire; Indonesia; Jamaica; Madagascar; Mauritius; Morocco; Myanmar; Paraguay; Saudi Arabia; Uzbekistan
Indonesia and Paraguay introduced an electronic case management system. Brunei Darussalam, China (Shanghai), Côte d’Ivoire, Jamaica, Madagascar, Mauritius, Myanmar and Saudi Arabia introduced the possibility of generating performance measurement reports and made them available publicly.
Introduced electronic filing
Azerbaijan; Germany; United States (Los Angeles)
Azerbaijan, Germany and the United States (Los Angeles) introduced an electronic filing system for commercial cases, allowing attorneys to submit the initial summons online.
Introduced or expanded specialized commercial court
Bahrain; Dominican Republic; South Africa
Bahrain, the Dominican Republic and South Africa introduced dedicated venues to resolve commercial disputes.
Expanded the alternative dispute resolution framework
Azerbaijan; Barbados; Dominican Republic; Kosovo; Lebanon; Mauritania; Serbia; Uzbekistan
Barbados, the Dominican Republic, Kosovo, Lebanon and Mauritania adopted laws that regulate all aspects of mediation as an alternative dispute resolution mechanism. Azerbaijan, Serbia and Uzbekistan introduced financial incentives for mediation.
Introduced a new restructuring procedure
Bahrain; Jordan; Saudi Arabia; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Bahrain introduced the option of reorganization for commercial entities as an alternative to the previously-available option of liquidation and allowed the debtor to initiate the reorganization procedure.
Improved the likelihood of successful reorganization
Bahrain; China; Djibouti; India; Mauritius; Saudi Arabia; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Zambia allowed debtors to obtain new financing after the commencement of insolvency proceedings and defined the priority of new financing.
Improved provisions on treatment of contracts during insolvency
Bahrain; Jordan; Kenya; Mauritius; Saudi Arabia
|Jordan allowed the continuation of the debtor’s essential contracts during insolvency proceedings and provided for the rejection by the debtor of overly burdensome contracts.|
Strengthened creditors’ rights
Brunei Darussalam; China; Colombia; Saudi Arabia; Serbia
Serbia granted all creditors the right to request and receive from the administrator (insolvency representative) all the information related to the debtor, including information on the course of insolvency proceedings and the management of the debtor’s property.
Altered hiring rules
Djibouti; Italy; North Macedonia; South Africa; Suriname
Djibouti and South Africa introduced a minimum wage. Italy and Suriname reduced the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts. North Macedonia decreased the length of the probationary period.
Amended regulation of working hours
Austria; Hungary; Luxembourg; Malta; Rwanda; Slovak Republic
Luxembourg and Malta increased paid annual leave. Hungary and Austria amended overtime hours. The Slovak Republic increased wage premiums for work performed during days of weekly rest and at night.
Changed redundancy rules and cost
North Macedonia; Rwanda
North Macedonia and Rwanda introduced priority rules pertaining to reemployment and increased severance payments. North Macedonia also introduced priority rules for redundancies.
|Source: Doing Business database.|
Note: Reforms affecting the employing workers indicators are included here but do not affect the ranking on the ease of doing business.